ACE Assembler Documentation

by Craig Bruce -- for version 1.20 -- December 17, 1995.


1. INTRODUCTION

The ACE assembler is a one-pass assembler.  The only real limitation on the
size of assembly jobs is the amount of near+far memory you have available.
Labels are "limited" to 240 characters (all significant), and the object
size is limited to 64K (of course).  Numerical values are "limited" to
32-bits or less.  Relative labels ("+" and "-" labels) are implemented in
the same way as in the Buddy assembler.  Add, subtract, multiply, divide,
modulus, and, or, and xor dyadic operators are implemented for expressions
with positive, negate, high-byte, and low-byte monadic oparators, and the
planned macro and conditional assembly features are not yet implemented.
Expressions are limited to 17 operands (with 255 monadic operators each) and
are evaluates strictly left-to-right, but references to unresolved
identifiers are allowed anywhere, including equate definitions.
Hierarchical inclusion of source files is supported, and compatibility
features have been implemented to allow this assembler to accept directives
and syntax of other assemblers.  All of the ACE applications can be
assembled using this assembler, including the assembler itself.

The assembler is designed to be a "heavy hitter", operates at moderate
speed, and uses a fair amount of dynamically allocated memory.  In fact, on
an unexpanded 64, you won't be able to assemble programs that are too large,
including the assembler itself (89K of source).  You'll be able to do larger
jobs on an unexpanded 64 if you deactivate the soft-80 screen in the
configuration.  (Of course, one could argue that any serious 64 hacker would
have expanded memory anyways...).

In addition to the regular 6502 instructions, this release of the assembler
has the following directives:

label = value                ;assign given value to the label
label:                       ;assign the current assembly address to label
+                            ;generate a temporary label, assign cur address
-                            ;generate a temporary label, assign cur address
.org address                 ;set the origin of the assembly
.buf size                    ;reserve "size" bytes of space,filled with zeroes
.include "filename"          ;source-file inclusion (nestable)
.byte val1, val2, ..., valN  ;put byte values into memory
.word val1, val2, ..., valN  ;put word values into memory
.triple val1, val2, ..., valN ;put "triple" (3-byte) values into memory, lo->hi
.long val1, val2, ..., valN  ;put "long" (4-byte) values into memory, lo->hi

These features is described in more detail below.  Note that throughout the
documentation, I use the terms "identifier", "symbol", and "label"
interchangeably.

The official name of the assembler is "the ACE assembler", but unofficially,
it can be called "ACEmbler" to give it a specific one-word name.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. USAGE

The usage for the as command is, stated in Unix notation:

usage: as [-help] [-s] [-d] [-q] [file ...]

The "-help" flag will cause the assembler display the usage information and
then exit, without assembling any code.  Actually, any flag that it doesn't
understand will be taken as if you had said "-help", but note that if you
type the "as" command alone on a command line that usage information will
not be given.

The "-s" flag tells the assembler to generate a symbol-table listing when
the assembly job is finished.  The table is formatted for an 80-column
display.  indicates that a symbol table should be generated when the
assembly job is done.  The table will look like:

The "-d" flag tells the assembler to produce debugging information while it
is working.  It will generate a lot of output, so you can see exactly what
is going on.

The "-q" flag tells the assembler to accept quoted text (strings) literally,
without parsing backslash sequences inside of the strings.  This feature is
provided for compatibility with source files from other assemblers.

The object-code module name will be "a.out" unless the name of the first
source file ends with a ".s" extension, in which case the object module will
be the base name of first source file (without the extension).  The object
module will be written as a PRG file and will be in Commodore-DOS program
format: the first two bytes will be the low and high bytes of the code
address, and the rest will be the binary image of the assembled code.

If no source filename is given on the command line, then input is taken from
the stdin file stream (and written to "a.out").  If more than one filename
is given, the each is read, in turn, into the same assembly job (as if the
files were "cat"ted together into one source file).  (This will change
subtly when the assembler is completed).

This assembler does not produce a listing of the code assembled and will
stop the whole assembly job on the first error it encounters.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. TOKENS

While reading your source code, the assembler groups characters into tokens
and interprets them as a complete unit.  The assembler works with five
different types of tokens: identifiers, numeric literals, string literals,
special characters, and end-of-file (eof).  Eof is special since it doesn't
actually include any characters, and its only meaning is to stop reading
from the current source.  Your input source file should consist only of
characters that are printable in standard ASCII (don't be confused by this;
the assembler expects its input to be in PETSCII) plus TAB and
Carriage-Return.  Other characters may confuse the assembler.

Identifiers consist of a lowercase or uppercase letter or an underscore (_)
followed by a sequence of such letters or decimal digits or periods (.).
This is a pretty standard definition of an identifier.  Identifiers are
limited to 240 characters in length and an error will be reported if you try
to use one longer than that.  All of the characters of all identifiers are
significant, and letters are case-sensitive.  Here are some examples of
all-unique identifiers:

hello  Hello  _time4  a1_x140J  HelloThereThisIsA_LongOne

Numeric literals come in three types: decimal, hexadecimal, and binary.
Decimal literals consist of an initial digit from 0 to 9 followed by any
number of digits, provided that the value does not exceed 2^32-1 (approx. 4
billion).  All types of literals can also have embedded underscore
characters, which are ignored by the assembler.  Use them grouping digits
(like the comma for big American numbers).

Hexadecimal literals consist of a dollar sign ($) followed by any number of
hexadecimal digits, provided the value doesn't overflow 32 bits.  Hexadecimal
digits include the decimal digits (0-9), and the first six uppercase or
lowercase letters of the alphabet (either a-f or A-F).  Hexadecimal literals
can also have embedded underscore characters for separators.

Binary literals consist of a percent sign (%) followed by any number of
binary digits that don't overflow 32-bits values.  The binary digits are, of
course, 0 and 1, and literals may include embedded underscore characters.
Note that negative values are not literals.  Here are some examples of valid
literals:

0  123  0001  4_294_967_295  $aeFF  $0123_4567  %010100 %110_1010_0111_1010

String literals are sequences of characters enclosed in either single (') or
double (") quotation marks.  The enclosed characters are not interpreted to
be independent tokens, nomatter what they are.  One exception is that the
carriage-return character cannot be enclosed in a string (this normally
indicates an error anyway).  To get special non-printable characters into
your strings, an "escape" character is provided: the backslash (\).  If the
backslash character is encountered, then the character following it is
interpreted and a special character code is put into the string in place of
the backslash and the following character.  Here are the characters allowed
to follow a backslash:

CHAR   CODE   MEANING
----   ----   --------
\        92   backslash character (\)
n        13   carriage return (newline)
b        20   backspace (this is a non-destructive backspace for ACE)
t         9   tab
r        10   goto beginning of line (for ACE, linefeed for CBM)
a         7   bell sound
z         0   null character (often used as a string terminator in ACE)
0         0   null character
'        39   single quote (')
e        27   escape
q        34   quotation mark
"        34   quotation mark

So, if you really want a backslash then you have to use two of them.  If you
wish to include an arbitrary character in a literal string, no facility is
provided for doing that.  However, the assembler will allow you to intermix
strings and numeric expressions at a higher level, so you can do it that
way.  Strings are limited to include 240 (encoded) characters or less.  This
is really no limitation to assembling, since you can put as many string
literals contiguously into memory as you wish.  Here are some examples:

"Hello there"  "error!\a\a"  'file "output" could not be opened\n\0'
"you 'dummy'!"  'you \'dummy\'!'  "Here are two backslashes: \\\\"

Special characters are single characters that cannot be interpreted as any
of the other types of tokens.  These are usually "punctuation" characters,
but carriage return is also a special-character token (it is a statement
separator).  Some examples follow:

,  (  #  &  )  =  /  ?  \  ~  {  

Tokens are separated by either the next character of input not being allowed
to belong to the current token type, or are separated by whitespace.
Whitespace characters include SPACE (" ") and TAB.  Note that carriage
return is not counted as whitespace.  Comments are allowed by using a ";"
character.  Everything following the semicolon up to but not including the
carriage return at the end of the line will be ignored by the assembler.  (I
may implement an artifical-intelligence comment parser to make sure the
assembler does what you want it to, but this will be strictly an optional,
time-permitting feature).
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. EXPRESSIONS

Numeric expressions consist of operands and operators.  If you don't know
what operands and operators are, then go buy an elementary-school math
book.  There are six types of operands: numeric literals, single-character
string literals, identifiers, the asterisk character, one or more plus
signs, and one or more minus signs.  These last three types can make parsing
an expression a bit confusing, but they are necessary and useful.

Numeric literals are pretty easy to think about.  They're just 32-bit
numbers and work in the usual way.  Single-character string literals are
also interpreted (in the context of a numeric expression) as being a numeric
literal.  The value of a single-character string is simply the PETSCII code
for the character.

Identifiers or "symbols" or "labels" used in expressions refer to numeric
values that have been or will be assigned to the identifiers.  Binding
values to identifiers is done by assembler directives discussed in a later
section.  If an identifier already has a value assigned to it by the time
that the current expression is reached in assembly, then it is treated as if
it were a numeric literal of the value assigned to the identifier.  If the
identifier currently has no value assigned to it (i.e., it is "unresolved"),
then the entire current expression will be unresolved.  In this case, the
value of the expression will be recorded and will be evaluated at a later
time when all of its identifiers become resolved.  A "hole" will be created
where the expression should go, and the hole will be "filled in" later.
Note that there are a couple of directives for which an expression must be
resolved at the time it is referenced.

The asterisk character operates much like a numeric literal, except that its
value is the current code address rather than a constant.  The current code
address will always be for the start of an assembler instruction.  I.e., the
current code address is incremented only after an instruction is assembled.
This has some subtle implications, and other assemblers may implement
slightly different semantics.  Directives are a little different in that the
address is incremented after every value in a "commalist" is put into
memory.

Relative references, i.e., operands consisting of a number of pluses or
minuses, operate much like identifiers.  They are provided for convenience
and work exactly how they do in the Buddy assembler.  Operands of all
minuses are backward references and operands of all pluses are forward
references.  Because of parsing difficulties, relative-reference operands
must either be the last operand in an expression or must be followed by a
":" character.

The number of pluses or minuses tell which relative reference "point" is
being referred to.  A reference point is set by the "+" and "-" assembler
directives discussed later.  This gets difficult to explain with words, so
here is a code example:

   ldy #5
-  ldx #0
-  lda name1,x
   sta name2,x
   beq +
   cmp #"x"
   beq ++
   inx
   bne -
+  dey
   bne --
+  rts

This relatively bogus subroutine will copy a null-terminated character
string from name1 to name2 five times, unless the string contains an "x"
character, in which case the copy operation terminates immediately upon
encountering the "x".  The "beq +" branches to the next "+" label to occur
in the code, to the "dey" instruction.  The "beq ++" branches to the "rts",
to the "+" label following the next "+" label encountered.  The "-" and "--"
references work similarly, except that they refer to the previous "-" label
and the previous to the previous "-" label.  You can use up to 255 pluses or
minus signs in a relative-reference operand to refer to that many reference
points away.

That I said relative-reference operands work much like identifiers above is
no cooincidence.  For each definition of a reference point and reference to
a point, an internal identifier is generated that looks like "L+123c" or
"L-123c".  Note that you can't define or refer to these identifiers
yourself.

There are two types of operators that can be used in expressions: monadic
and diadic operators.  Monadic operators affect one operand, and dyadic
operators affect two operands.  At about this point, I should spell out the
actual form of an expression.  It is:

[monadic_operators] operand [ operator [monadic_operators] operand [...] ]

or:

1 + 2
-1 + -+-2 + 3

An expression may have up to 17 operands.

The monadic (one-operand) operators are: positive (+), negative (-),
low-byte (<), and high-bytes (>).  You can have up to 255 of each of these
monadic operators for each operand of an expression.  Positive doesn't
actually do anything.  Negative will return the 32-bit 2's complement of the
operand that it is attached to.  Low-byte will return the lowest eight bits
of the operand it is attached to.  High-byte will return the high-order
24-bits of the 32-bit operand it is attached to.  All expressions are
evaluated in full 32-bit precision.  Note that you can use the high-bytes
operator more than once to extract even higher byte.  For example,
"<>>value" will extract the second-highest byte of the 32-bit value.

The dyadic (two-operand) operators that are implemented are: add (+),
subtract (-), multiply (*), divide (/), modulus (!), bitwise-and (&),
bitwise-or (|), and bitwise-exclusive-or (^).  Yes, the plus and minus
symbols are horribly overloaded, and the usual Not (modadic) operator isn't
implemented, since it can be simulated with Xor, and "not, with respect to
what?" becomes a problem since evaluations are performed with a full
32-bits.  We should already know what all of the implemented operators do,
except maybe for Modulus.  It is like Divide, except that Modulus returns
the Remainder rather than the Quotient of the division result.

Evaluation of dyadic operators is strictly left-to-right, and value
overflows and underflows are ignored.  Values are always considered to be
positive, but this doesn't impact 2's complement negative arithmetic for add
and subtract dyadic operators.

Monadic operators take precedence over dyadic operators.  Evaluation of
monadic operators is done a little differently.  All positive operators are
thrown out since they don't actually do anything.  Then, if there is an even
number of negative operators, they are thrown out.  If there is an odd
number of negative operators, then the 2's complement negative of the
operand is returned.  Then, if there are any high-bytes operators, the value
is shifted that number of bytes to the right and the highest-order byte of
the value is set to zero on each shift.  Note that it really doesn't make
any sense to perform any more than three high-bytes operators.  Then, the
low-byte operator is preformed, if asked for.  It is equivalent to taking
anding the value with $000000ff.  It really doesn't make much sense to
perform this operator more than once.  Also, it doesn't make any difference
in which order you place the monadic operators in an expression; they are
always evaluated in the static order given above.

There is one exception here.  If the first operand of an expression has
high-bytes and/or low-byte monadic operators, then the rest of the
expression is evaluated first and then the high/low-byte monadic operators
are performed on the result.  This is done to be consistent with other
assemblers and with user expectations.

Parentheses are not supported.  Here are some examples of valid expressions:

2
+2+1
2+-1
2+-------------------------------------1
++++:-+++:+---
1+"x"-"a"+"A"
<>>>4_000_000_000
label+1
-1

This last one ends up with a value of negative one, which is interpreted as
really being 4_294_967_295.  If you were to try and do something like
"lda #-1", you would get an error because the value would be interpreted as
being way too big.

Expressions results and identifiers have a data type associated with them.
There are four data types: Value, Address, Low-byte, High-byte. and
Garbage.  The type of an expression is recorded since it will be required to
provide object-module relocation features in the future.  Values are what
you would expect and come from numeric and single-character-string-literal
operands.  The Address type comes from the asterisk and relative reference
operands and from identifier operands which are defined to be addresses.  An
address is defined to be only an address in the range of the assembled
code.  Addresses outside of this range are considered to be values.  The
High-byte type results from applying the high-bytes (>) operator to an
address operand, and the Low-byte type, from applying the low-byte (<)
operator.  The Garbage type results from using an operator on two operands
of types that don't make any sense (for example, from multiplying one
Address by another).  The result-type rules for the operators is a bit
complicated, but is intuitive.  You don't have to worry about them since the
assembler takes care of them automatically.  Keeping track of expression
types makes it possible to generate a list of all values in memory that must
be modified in order to relocate a program to a new address without
reassembling it.

String "expressions" consist of only a single string literal.  No operators
are allowed.  Some assembler directives accept either numeric or string
expressions and interpret them appropriately (like "byte").
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. PROCESSOR INSTRUCTIONS

This assembler accepts the 56 standard 6502 processor instructions.  It does
not provide un-documented 6502 instructions nor 65c02 nor 65816 instructions
nor custom pseudo-ops.  The latter will be provided by future macro
features.  All of the assembler instructions must be in lowercase or they
will not be recognized.  Here are the instructions:

NUM  INS      NUM  INS      NUM  INS      NUM  INS      NUM  INS
---  ---      12.  bvc      24.  eor      36.  pha      48.  sta
01.  adc      13.  bvs      25.  inc      37.  php      49.  stx
02.  and      14.  clc      26.  inx      38.  pla      50.  sty
03.  asl      15.  cld      27.  iny      39.  plp      51.  tax
04.  bcc      16.  cli      28.  jmp      40.  rol      52.  tay
05.  bcs      17.  clv      29.  jsr      41.  ror      53.  tsx
06.  beq      18.  cmp      30.  lda      42.  rti      54.  txa
07.  bit      19.  cpx      31.  ldx      43.  rts      55.  txs
08.  bmi      20.  cpy      32.  ldy      44.  sbc      56.  tya
09.  bne      21.  dec      33.  lsr      45.  sec
10.  bpl      22.  dex      34.  nop      46.  sed
11.  brk      23.  dey      35.  ora      47.  sei

The assembler also supports 12 addressing modes.  The "accumulator"
addressing mode that can be used with the rotate and shift instructions is
treated like the immediate addressing mode, so a shift-left-accumulator
instruction would be just "asl" rather than "asl a".  Many other assemblers
get rid of the accumulator addressing mode also.  Processor instructions
(and addressing modes with "x" and "y" in them) may be given in either
uppercase or lowercase, to allow for maximum compatibility with source code
from other assemblers.

Here is the token syntax for the addressing modes (CR means carriage
return):

num  name       gen  byt  example   tokens
---  ---------  ---  ---  -------   -------
01.  implied    00.    1            CR
02.  immediate  00.    2  #123      #     / exp8  / CR
03.  relative   00.    2  *+20      exp16 / CR
04.  zeropage   07.    2  123       exp8  / CR
05.  zp,x       08.    2  123,x     exp8  / ,     / x   / CR
06.  zp,y       09.    2  123,y     exp8  / ,     / y   / CR
07.  absolute   00.    3  12345     exp16 / CR
08.  abs,x      00.    3  12345,x   exp16 / ,     / x   / CR
09.  abs,y      00.    3  12345,y   exp16 / ,     / y   / CR
10.  indirect   00.    3  (12345)   (     / exp16 / )   / CR
11.  (ind,x)    00.    2  (123,x)   (     / exp8  / ,   / x   / )  / CR
12.  (ind),y    00.    2  (123),y   (     / exp8  / )   / ,   / y  / CR

Each instruction takes a complete line and each addressing mode must be
terminated by a carriage return token (comments are skipped).  The format of
an instruction line is as follows:

[prefix_directives] instruction address_mode_operand

In the case that an expression in an addressing mode is resolved at the
point it is encountered and its value is less than 256, the assembler will
try to use the zero-page addressing modes if possible.  On the other hand,
if a zero-page addressing mode is unavailable for an instruction, then the
assembler will promote or generalize the zero-page addressing mode to an
absolute addressing mode, if possible.  This is what the "gen" column in the
table above shows.  If after attempting to generalize the addressing mode
the given addressing mode still not valid with the given instruction, then
an error will be generated.

In the case that an expression in an addressing mode cannot be resolved at
the point where it is encountered in the assembler's single pass, a hole is
left behind, and that hole is made as "large" as possible; it is assumed
that you will fill in the hole with the largest value possible.  This means,
for example, if you were to assemble the following instruction:

lda var,x

then the assembler would assume this is an absolute mode, and will fill in
the hole later as such, even if it turns out that "var" is assigned a value
less than 256 later on.  This results in slight inefficiency in the code
produced by this assembler, but it causes most two-pass assemblers to fail
completely on a "phase error".  An easy way to avoid this circumstance is to
make sure that all zero-page labels are defined before they are referred
to.

The addressing modes that require a single byte value and that will not
"generalize" to an absolute mode will have a single-byte hole created for
them.  Only the branching instructions will be interpreted as having the
relative addressing mode, and a single-byte hole will be left.  Two
exceptions to the above rules are the "stx zp,y" and "sty zp,x", which will
leave a single-byte hole on an unresolved expression, since the
absolute-mode generalizations for these instructions are not supported by
the processor.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. DIRECTIVES

There are currently six classes of assembler directives; there will be
more in the future.  For maximum compatibility, all directives can be
in either uppercase or lowercase.  Also, to be more standard, most
directives are required to start with the dot (.) character.

6.1. DO-NOTHING DIRECTIVES

There are three do-nothing directives:

#                           ;does nothing
                            ;blank line--does nothing

A blank line in your source code will simply be ignored.  This helps to make
code much more readable.  The "#" directive is a prefix directive.  This
means that it does not occupy an entire line but allows other directives and
processor instructions to follow it on the same line (including other prefix
directives).  (But note that you can follow any prefix directive by the
blank-line directive, effectively allowing prefix directives to be regular
full-line directives (powerful combining forms)).  The "#" directive is
simply ignored by the assembler, but you can use it to highlight certain
lines of code or other directives.

6.2. ASSIGNMENT DIRECTIVES

There are four assignment directives.  They all assign (bind) a value to an
identifier.  Here they are:

label = expression          ;assign given value to the label
label:                      ;assign the current assembly address to label
+                           ;generate a temporary label, assign cur address
-                           ;generate a temporary label, assign cur address

The first (label=expr) is the most general.  It assigns the result of
evaluating the expression to the given label.  Because this assembler is so
gosh-darned awesome, the expression doesn't even have to be resolved; a
"hole" will be created saying to fill in the assigned label when all of the
unresolved identifiers in the expression eventually become resolved.  Most
other assemblers (in fact, all that I have ever heard of) can't do this
because it causes ugly implementation problems, like cascading label
resolutions.  Consider the following example:

lda #a
sta b,x
a = b+3
b = c-1
c = 5

At the point where c becomes defined, there are no "memory holes" but the
label hole "b" must be evaluated and filled in.  "b" gets assigned the value
4.  At this point, there are two holes: the one in the "sta" instruction and
the label "a".  We fill them both in, assigning "a" the value 8, and we
discover that we need to fill in a hew hole: the one in the "lda"
instruction.  We do that and we are finally done.  The implementation can
handle any number of these recursive label hole-fillings, limited only by
the amount of near+far memory you have.

A label can only be assigned a value only once, and you will get an error if
you try to redefine a label, even if it is currently unresolved.  Also, all
exressions must be resolved by the end of the assembly job, or an error will
be reported (but only one--naming the first unresolved label that the
assembler runs across; I may fix this up in the future).

The second assignment directive is equivalent to "label = *", but it is more
convenient and is also a prefix directive.  It assigns the current address
(as of the start of the current line) to the given identifier.  The colon is
used with this directive to make it easy and efficient to parse, and to make
it easy for a human to see that a label is being defined.  Many other
assemblers follow this directive with just whitespace and rely on other
tricks, like putting an ugly dot before each directive, to bail them out.
For maximum compatibility, you can also leave out the colon following a
label definition and the assembler will figure out what you mean (though a
little less efficiently).

The third and fourth set relative reference points.  They are equivalent to
"rel_label = *", where "rel_label" is a specially generated internal
identifier of the form "L+123c" mentioned in the expression section.  The
labels defined by these directives show up in the symbol table dump, if you
ask for one on the command line.  These are also prefix directives, so if
you wanted to set a forward and a backward reference to the same address,
then you would do something like:

+- lda #1

In fact, you could put as many or these directives on the front of a line as
you want, though more than one of each will be of little use.  For source
compatibility with the Buddy assembler, the ACE assembler will also accept a
leading "/" on a line as being equivalent to "+-".  Note that backward
relative labels will always be defined at the point that they are referenced
and forward relative labels will always be undefined (unresolved) when they
are referenced.  If at the end of your assembly job the assembler complains
of an unresolved reference involving a label of the form "L+123c", then you
refer to a forward-relative point that you don't set, and if the label is of
the form "L-4000000000c", then you refer to a backward relative point that
you don't define.

6.3. ORIGIN DIRECTIVE

.org address_expression      ;set the origin of the assembly

This directive will set the code origin to the given expression.  The
expression MUST be resolved at the point where it appears, since it would be
very difficult to fill in the type of "hole" this would leave behind (though
not impossible, hmmm...).  The origin must be set before any processor
instruction or assembler directive that generates memory values or refers to
the current address is encountered, and the code origin can only be set
once.  This results in a contiguous code region, which is what ACE and the
Commodore Kernal require.

6.4. DEFINE-BYTES DIRECTIVES

.byte exp1, exp2, ..., expN   ;put byte values into memory
.word exp1, exp2, ..., expN   ;put word values into memory
.triple exp1, exp2, ..., expN ;put "triple" (3-byte) values into memory, lo->hi
.long exp1, exp2, ..., expN   ;put "long" (4-byte) values into memory, lo->hi

These directives all put byte values into code memory, at the current
address.  The only difference between the four of them is the size of data
values they put into memory: bytes (8 bits), words (16 bits), triples (24
bits), and longs (32 bits).  The code address is incremented by the
appropriate number of bytes between putting each value into memory.  Any
number of values can be specified by separating them by commas.  All
expressions are evaluated in full 32 bits, but must fit into the size for
the directive.  The expressions don't have to be resolved at the time they
appear.

These directives can also be given strings for arguments, which means that
each character of the string will be stored as one byte/word/etc. in memory,
for example:

.byte 123, abc+xyz+%1101-"a"+$1, "hello", 0, "yo!", "keep on hackin'\0"

These directives used to be named "db", "dw", "dt", and "dw", but I changed
them to be more consistent with most other 6502 assemblers out there.

6.5. BUF DIRECTIVE

.buf size_expression       ;reserve "size" bytes of space, filled with zeroes

This directive reserves the given number of bytes of space from the current
code address and fills them with zeroes.  The expression must be resolved,
and can be any value from 0 up to 65535 (or the number of bytes remaining
until the code address overflows the 64K code space limit).

6.6. INCLUDE DIRECTIVE

.include "filename"       ;include the named source file at the current point

This directive will include the named source file at the current point in
the current source file, as if you had typed the contents of the named
file were actually typed at the current point.  Input is read from the
include file until it hits EOF, and then input is resumed from the current
file immediately after the include statement.  The filename must be in
the form of a string literal and in the ACE syntax.

Normally, this feature is used to include standard header files into an
application, such as the "acehead.s" file, but it can also be use to
modularize an application into a number of different functional modules.

Include files may be nested arbitrarily deep (included files may include
other files, and so on) in the assembler, but the ACE environment puts
limitations on how many files can be opened at one time (although, you
should never need to go more than a couple of levels deep).  The assembler
doesn't check for recursive include files (although it could), but you will
get an error anyway from ACE since you will exceed the number of allowed
files to have opened.

Error reporting is also reported correctly in the case that an error is
detected in the current source file because of a reference in a different
file (both files will be named).

6.7. PARSING AND COMPATIBILITY

Because of the way that the assembler parses the source code (it uses a
one-character-peek-ahead ad-hoc parser), you can define labels that are also
directive names or processor-instruction names (if you use the colon
notation).  This is not a recommended practice, since you can end up with
lines that look like:

x: lda: lda lda,x

The parser will know what to do, but most humans won't.  Also, because of
the tokenizer, can put arbitrary spacing between tokens, except between
tokens that would otherwise merge together (like two adjacent identifiers or
decimal numbers).

For compatibility, the following directives are also include and are used
as aliases for ACE-assembler directives.

ALIAS   ACE-as     DESCRIPTION
-----   ------     -----------
.asc    .byte      works since the byte directive accepts strings
.byt    .byte      equivalent
.seq    .include   equivalent; the filename must be a literal string
.obj    ;          all tokens following this are ignored UNTIL the CR
.end          end the assembly of the current file
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. ERROR HANDLING

When an error is detected, the assembler will stop the whole assembly job
and print out one error message (to the stderr file stream).  Here are two
examples of error messages:

err ("k:":2:0) Value is too large or negative

err ("k:":3:0), ref("k:":2:0) Value is too large or negative

In both error messages, the stuff inside of the parentheses is the filename
of the source file (the keyboard here), the source line where the error was
detected, and the column number where the error was detected.  Currently,
the column number is not implemented so it is always zero.  When it is
implemented, the column numbers will start from 1, like in the Zed text
editor, and it will point to the first character of the token where the
error was discovered.

In the first example, the error occurred because the expression was resolved
and the value was found to be too large for whatever operation was
attempted.  In the second example, an expression was used but unresolved on
line 2 of the source file, and when its unresolved identifier(s) was finally
filled in in line 3 of the source, the "hole" to be filled in was found to
be too small for the value, so an error resulted.  This is what the "ref"
file position means.  Filenames are included in error messages because in
the future, it will be possible to have errors crop up in included files and
elsewhere.

Here is the entire list of possible error messages:

NUM  MEANING
---  -------
01.  "An identifier token exceeds 240 chars in length"
02.  "A string literal exceeds 240 chars in length"
03.  "Ran into a CR before end of string literal"
04.  "Invalid numeric literal"
05.  "Numeric literal value overflows 32-bits"
06.  "Syntax error"
07.  "Attempt to perform numeric operators on a string"
08.  "Expression has more than 17 operands"
09.  "Ran out of memory during compilation process"
10.  "Attempt to redefine a symbol"
11.  "Attempt to assemble code with code origin not set"
12.  "Internal error: You should never see this error!"
13.  "Non-numeric symbol in a numeric expression"
14.  "Expecting an operator"
15.  "Expecting an operand"
16.  "Expecting a command"
17.  "Value is too large or negative"
18.  "Branch out of range"
19.  "Feature is not (yet) implemented"
20.  "Instruction does not support given address mode"
21.  "Address wraped around 64K code address space"
22.  "Error trying to write output object file"
23.  "Directive requires resolved expression"
24.  "Code origin already set; you can't set it twice"
25.  "Unresolved symbol: "
26.  "Expecting a string-literal filename"

A "Syntax error" (#06) will be reported whenever a token other than one that
was expected is found (except in the cases of the other 'Expecting'
messages).  "Ran out of memory" (#09) may turn up often on an unexpanded
64.  "Expecting command" (#16) means that the assembler was expecting either
a processor instruction or directive but found something else instead.  "Not
implemented" (#19) means that you've tried to use a directive that isn't
implemented yet.  "Unresolved symbol" (#25) will be printed with a randomly
chosen unresolved symbol, with the last place in the source code where it
was referenced.

There are two main reasons behind the idea of stopping at the first error
encountered: simplicity and interoperability.  When ZED is implemented for
ACE, it will have a feature that will allow it to invoke the assembler (as a
sub-process) and have the assembler return an error location and message to
ZED, which will display the error message and position the cursor to the
error location (if the source file is loaded).

While on the subject of messages coming out of the assembler, here is an
example of the format of the symbol table dump that you can ask for on the
command line.  One line is printed for each identifier.  The "hash" value is
the bucket in the hash table chosen for the identifier.  This may not have a
whole lot of meaning for a user, but a good distribution of these hash
buckets in the symbol table is a good thing.  Next is the 32-bit "hexvalue"
of the label followed by the value in "decimal".  Then comes the type.  A
type of "v" means value, "a" in-code-range address, "l" means an address
low-byte, "h" means an address high-byte, and "g" means a 'garbage' type.
Then comes the name of the identifier.  It comes last to give lots of space
to print it.  If an identifier is ten or fewer characters long, its
symbol-table-dump line will fit on a 40-column screen.  At the bottom, the
number of symbols is printed.  This table is directed to the stdout file
stream, so you can redirect it to a file in order to save it.

HASH  HEXVALUE    DECIMAL  T  NAME
----  -------- ----------  -  -----
   8  00000f06       3846  v  aceArgv
 469  00007008      28680  a  main
--
Number of symbols: 2
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. IMPLEMENTATION

In each of the ways in which it is heavy-weight and slowed-down compared to
other assemblers, it is also more powerful and more flexible.

- It uses far memory for storing symbols, so there is no static or
  arbitrarily small limit on the number of symbols.  Macro sizes will also
  be limited by only the amount of memory available, as well as the "hole
  table".

- It has to maintain a "hole table" because of its structure, but this means
  that you can define labels in terms of other unresolved labels, that you
  will never get a "sync error" because of incorrect assumptions made (and
  not recorded) about unresolved labels, and that modular assembly can be
  implemented without too much further effort (i.e., ".o" or ".obj" files),
  since an unresolved external reference handling mechanism is already
  implemented.

- The assembler keeps track of the "types" of labels which makes it possible
  to provide code relocation information that will be needed by modular
  assembly and by future multitasking operating systems.

- Because a "hole table" approach is used, the raw object code must be
  stored internally until the assembly is complete and then it can be
  written out to a file, but this also means that header information can be
  provided in an output file since all assembly results will be known before
  any output is written.

- I took the easy way out for handling errors; when an error is detected, an
  error message is generated and printed and the assembler STOPs.  But the
  exit mechanism provided by ACE makes it possible to integrate the
  assembler with other programs, like a text editor, to move the text editor
  cursor to the line and column containing the error and display a message
  in the text editor.

There are two speed advantages that this assembler has over (some?) others:

- It uses a 1024-entry hash table of pointers to chains of labels, so, for a
  program that has 800 or so symbols, each can be accessed in something like
  1.3 tries.  For N total symbols, the required number of references is
  approximately MAX( N/1024, 1 ).

- It is one-pass, so it only has to go through the overhead of reading the
  source file once.  Depending on the type of device the file is stored on,
  this may give a considerable savings.  This also makes it possible to
  "pipe" the output of another program into the assembler, without any
  "rewind" problems.

Here are some (old) performace figures, compared to the Buddy assembler for
the 128.  All test cases were run on a C128 in 2-MHz mode with a RAMLink,
REU, and 1571 available.

ASSEMB   TIME(sec)   FILE DEVICE   FAR STORAGE
------   ---------   -----------   -----------
Buddy         45.5   RAMLink       n/a
ACE-as        61.5   RAMLink       REU
ACE-as        49.5   ACE ramdisk   REU
ACE-as        75.6   RAMLink       RAM0+RAM1
ACE-as       150.5   1571          RAM0+RAM1
Buddy        240.0   1571          n/a

Part of the assembly job was loaded into memory for the Buddy assembler, but
the load time is included in the figure.  As you can see, buddy performs
faster with a fast file device and slower with a slow file device (because
it requires two passes).  I have a couple of tricks up my sleeve to improve
the ACE assembler's performance.

Here are a few data structures for your enjoyment.

Identifier descriptor:

OFF   SIZ   DESCRIPTION
---   ---   ------------
  0     4   next link in hash table bucket
  4     4   value of symbol, pointer to reference list, or ptr to macro defn
  8     1   offset of reference in expression of reference list
  9     1   type: $00=value, $01=address, $02=low-byte, $03=high-byte,
                  $04=garbage, $80=unresolved, $ff=unresolved define
 10     1   class: $00=normal, $01=private, $80=global (not used yet)
 11     1   name length
 12     n   null-terminated name string (1-240 chars)
12+n    -   SIZE

Expression/Hole descriptor:

OFF   SIZ   DESCRIPTION
---   ---   -----------
  0     1   hole type: $01=byte, $02=word, $03=triple, $04=long, $40=branch,
            $80=label
  1     1   expression length: maximum offset+1 in bytes
  2     1   number of unresolved references in expression
  3     1   source column of reference
  4     4   address of hole
  8     4   source line of reference
 12     4   source file pointer
 16    14   expression operand descriptor slot #1
 30    14   expression operand descriptor slot #2
 44    14   expression operand descriptor slot #3
 58    14   expression operand descriptor slot #4
 72    14   expression operand descriptor slot #5
 86    14   expression operand descriptor slot #6
100    14   expression operand descriptor slot #7
114    14   expression operand descriptor slot #8
128    14   expression operand descriptor slot #9
142    14   expression operand descriptor slot #10
156    14   expression operand descriptor slot #11
170    14   expression operand descriptor slot #12
184    14   expression operand descriptor slot #13
198    14   expression operand descriptor slot #14
212    14   expression operand descriptor slot #15
226    14   expression operand descriptor slot #16
240    14   expression operand descriptor slot #17
254     -   SIZE

Expression operand descriptor:

OFF   SIZ   DESCRIPTION
---   ---   -----------
  0     1   dyadic operator: "+", "-", "*", "/", "!", "&", "|", or "^"
  1     1   type of value: $00=value, $01=address, $02=low-byte, $03=high-byte,
            $04=garbage type, $80=unresolved identifier
  2     1   monadic-operator result sign of value: $00=positive, $80=negative
  3     1   hi/lo operator counts: high_nybble=">" count, low_nybble="<" count
  4     4   numeric value or unresolved-identifier pointer
  8     4   next unresolved reference in chain for unresolved identifier
 12     1   offset in hole structure of next unresolved reference (operand)
 13     1   reserved
 14     -   SIZE

File Identifier:

OFF   SIZ   DESCRIPTION
---   ---   -----------
  0     4   pointer to previous file identifier on include stack
  4     4   line number save
  8     4   column number save
 12     1   file type: $00=regular, $01=stdin, $80=macro
 13     1   file descriptor save
 14     1   previous character save
 15     1   buffer pointer save
 16     4   pointer to buffer save area (char[256])
 20     4   reserved
 24     1   length of entire file-identifier record
 25     n   filename + '\0'
25+n    -   SIZE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9. THE FUTURE

This section is just random notes since I don't have the time right now to
fill it in.  I will be implementing include files, conditional assembly, and
macro assembly features in the future.  Modular assembly and relocatable-
code generation are also in my plans.

;todo: -implement storage classes: $00=internal, $01=rel.label, $80=exported
;      -implement source column, make line:col point to start of cur token
;      -make it so you can use a "\" to continue a line (macro)
;
; usage: as [-help] [-s] [-d] [-b] [-r] [-l] [-a addr] [file ...] [-o filename]
;
;     -help : produce this information, don't run
;        -s : produce symbol table dump at end
;        -d : provide debugging information (lots)
;        -b : produce binary module at end (default)
;        -r : produce relocatable module rather than binary module
;        -l : produce linkable ".o" module(s)
;        -a : set global code origin to given address
;        -o : put output into given filename
;
;     If -l option is not used, all files, including source and object modules,
; will be assembled together.  The output module name will be the base name of
; the first file given if it has a ".s" or ".o" extension, "a.out" if the first
; file has none of these extensions, or will be the filename given by the -o
; option if used.
;     If the -l option is used, then each given source module will be
; assembled independently into its own ".o" module.  Object modules will be
; ignored.
;     The global origin will be either that given by the -a option (if it is
; used) or by the local origin of the first source/object module.  Each
; source module that generates code must have a local code origin.

More Directives:

if   
elsif   
else
endif
macro macroname
endmacro
export label1, label2, ..., labelN
bss size_expression

macro blt ;?1=addr
   bcc ?1
endmacro

macro add ;?1=operand
   clc
   adc ?1
endmacro

macro ldw ;?1=dest, ?2=source
 if ?# != 2
   error "the ldw macro instance doesn't have two arguments"
 endif
 if @1 = #
   argshift 2 0
   lda #?2
   sta ?1+1
 else
   lda ?2+0
   sta ?1+0
   lda ?2+1
   sta ?1+1
 endif
endmacro
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
So, there is finally a powerful and convenient assembler universally
available for both the 64 and 128... for free.  The source code for the
assembler (which can be assembled by the assembler, of course) is also
available for free.  There are a few more features that need to be
implemented, but I know exactly how to implement them.

Keep on Hackin'!

-Craig Bruce
csbruce@cubewerx.com
"Give them applications and they will only want more; give them development
 tools and they will give you applications, and more."


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